As we all know that only 1% of water is fresh water which is accessible and 0.007% is available for drinking. Broadly we can divide the factors which affect clean water availability into 3 themes:

  • Pollution
  • Climate
  • Water Management

Pollution

When water bodies get contaminated either directly or indirectly through various chemicals or waste, we call it water pollution. Water pollution is globally an ecological threat to humanity. If we do not control it, we might lose all clean water that is available to us. The source of pollution can be from various places; from industries to farming or even a simple place like our home. 

 

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In this world of heavy industrialization with so many factories and plants coming up every day, we release pollutants in form of waste and chemicals. Though there are various norms and policies introduced to safeguard clean water, it is still difficult to manage and control water pollution. Most of us think that only surface water gets contaminated but it’s not true, even ground water can get contaminated. Ground water gets contaminated if regular or constant release of chemicals occur into the soil.  As we all know, India’s primary sector is agriculture. Nowadays, while farming, many farmers utilize pesticides and fertilizers. During irrigating of farm lands, excess water is removed through various drainage systems, which somehow finds itself mixing with various clean water bodies. Water pollution is not for humans, but also for the animals and plants. Many industries release their waste and chemicals into the ocean thinking it’s not affecting the eco-system, but they forget the various life forms living in the ocean. 

Climate Change

Global warming poses a huge threat to availability of clean water and over the years, global warming has been on the rise. Due to global warming, mountain snow caps and glaciers are melting at an early stage which will reduce the availability of water at a future time period. Heavy water flow will lead to rise of sea water level, which in return will result in saltwater entering clean water bodies. Also, due to heavy rain and bad weather, municipal sewers will get flooded and overflow which will result in sewage water mixing with the available clean water. So, we can see that a climate change can hugely affect the availability of clean water. 

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Water Management

 When resources become limited, management becomes the key to deal with the crisis. It starts from a simple act of saving water with your day to day utilities. From brushing your teeth to washing your clothes, minimum water needs to be utilized, which ensures hygiene with minimum wastage of water, i.e. proper water management. However, in reality, people do come across the concept of water crisis and may debate on various issues without really doing much to solve the crisis. It’s time for us to act on our own and save every drop of water so as to ensure adequate availability of clean water in the near future. 

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If resources are limited, utmost importance should be given on managing it, because even when resource is plenty, careless behaviour, i.e. mismanagement can lead to scarcity of the same resource.

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